Other Neglected Tropical Diseases
While malaria and dengue are two of the most serious insect-borne diseases, there are many others that particularly affect populations in tropical and sub-tropical areas, although some insect -borne diseases are also widespread in Europe. Many of these are the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) that are poverty-related. From the seventeen NTDs identified by the WHO, six are vector borne, namely Dengue, Human African Trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, leishmanasis, lymphatic Filariasis and onchocerciasis.
Mosquitoes are the most important of the diseases vectors. Apart from malaria and dengue, some of the other diseases transmitted by mosquitoes include: yellow fever, West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever, Chikungunya, Japanese Encephalitis; Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis; and Lymphatic Filariasis.
The filarial diseases of onchocerciasis river blindness), transmitted by blackflies, and the mosquito-borne lymphatic Filariasis ( elephantiasis), inflict a heavy socio-economic burden in resource –poor communities. Leishmaniasis , which is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies , is widely distributed in 98 countries. There are several forms of this disease, the mains ones being visceral leishmaniasis which is fatal if not treated, and cutaneous leishmaniasis.
There are also many tick –borne diseases affecting humans and animals including tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, relapsing fever, tick-borne typhus, Crimea-Congo haemorrhagic fever.
Plague, carried by rodents and transmitted to humans by fleas is also still endemic in tropical and subtropical areas.